A recast of a presentation done for the Fairfax Chapter of Association of Energy Engineers in November of 2013. Presentation focuses on the the Advanced Energy Design Guides published by ASHRAE with association of AIA, USGBC, and IES with funding and technical support from DOE, NREL, and PNNL. In addition, the DOE Advanced Retrofit Guides are also discussed. Both sets of guides are available for download from this resource database.
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This guide covers each major step in procuring a solar photovoltaic (PV) system:
- Conducting technical and financial studies
- Financing a PV system
- Project execution
- Operations and maintenance
- Assessing benefits
The guide provides information on the basic steps, key considerations, and where to go for more information. It is intended to provide an overview and some level of detail, with pointers to highly detailed information and resources.
"This paper discusses the evidence regarding daylighting and student performance and development, and presents four case studies of schools that have cost effectively implemented daylighting into their buildings."
"Improved lighting efficiency has long been a major strategy to reduce the energy use in buildings. These savings have traditionally come from improved efficiency of lamps and ballasts. Today, deep energy reductions and Zero Net Energy (ZNE) are possible by continually controlling each of these efficient fixtures in response to varying details within the space. This guide provides an overview of luminaire-level lighting control (LLLC). The full LLLC approach provides controllability at each fixture with real-time energy tracking and data collection."
"Zero Net Energy (ZNE) is the future, and in a growing number of places the present, of building design and energy policy. A growing strategy to get to ZNE is to separate the building’s heating/cooling from the ventilation/dehumidification. Design firms and owners are striving to meet heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) loads with optimum comfort and minimal energy. Radiant systems can provide heating and cooling through pipes while ventilation and any humidity control requirements are efficiently met by a Dedicated Outdoor Air System (DOAS). This guide provides an overview of Radiant Heating and Cooling + DOAS systems."
In the cold climate of the upper Midwest, air-source VRF systems have difficulty meeting heating loads when the outdoor temperatures drop below -5ºF. Because of this difficulty during common cold spells, they are either oversized (adding to system cost) or supplemental heat is added (adding to operating cost). Cold temperatures can also cause frost issues around outdoor units, as well as compressor failure. A VRF system served by a water loop—in place of air—does not have these issues, making the technology more practical and effective in cold climates such as the upper Midwest. A water-source VRF system can be connected to a boiler and cooling tower or, for even higher performance, a ground heat exchanger.
A detailed two page case study on the Zero Energy Ready Turkey Foot Middle School.
"Turkey Foot is revolutionizing the way kids learn, all within a new building that uses half the energy of the previous school despite being twice the size. Turkey Foot leveraged the practices and experience on other high performance goals in the District."
"When designers of the first net zero energy school in the U.S. considered how they would approach the lighting design differently using today’s LED technology, the results extended far beyond just switching out the lightbulbs. The hypothetical redesign of Richardsville (Ky.) Elementary classrooms involves rethinking the daylighting design based on the evolution of LED lighting and the cheaper cost of photovoltaics (PV)."
The Advanced Energy Retrofit Guide for K-12 Schools is one of five retrofit guides commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy. By presenting general project planning guidance as well as more detailed descriptions and financial payback metrics for the most important and relevant energy efficiency measures, the guides provide a practical roadmap for effectively planning and implementing performance improvements in existing buildings. The K-12 Schools guide provides convenient and practical guidance for making cost-effective energy efficiency improvements in public, private, and parochial schools.
Article in the Whole Building Design Guide about the uses and features of metal roofs that meet "cool roof" standards.