Segmentation, identifying homogenous sub-populations within larger heterogeneous populations, has emerged as an important marketing tool over the past half-century. The technique is a response to the need to effectively communicate with an increasingly diverse population.
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This resource describes the California Preschool Energy Efficiency Program, including program rationale, outcomes, strategy, and implementation.
This fact sheet describes how a hybrid finance model utilizing power purchase agreements (PPA) and public debt works and assesses the model’s relative advantages and challenges as compared to self-ownership and the third-party PPA. The fact sheet also provides a quick guide to project implementation and assesses the replicability of the model in other jurisdictions across the United States.
This paper shows how a quiet revolution in clean energy financing is now happening at the state level. States and cities, for the first time, are beginning to use these credit enhancement tools to finance clean energy technology deployment.
Michigan’s Oxford Area Community School District entered into an energy savings performance contract and issued limited tax general obligation bonds to fund the up-front costs of almost $3 million of energy-related improvements. Case study is excerpted from Financing Energy Upgrades for K-12 School Districts: A Guide to Tapping into Funding for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements.
Williamson County School District entered into an energy savings performance
contract with an energy services company and completed a $5.7 million lease-purchase agreement to fund a range of energy-related improvements across 27 school facilities. Case study is excerpted from Financing Energy Upgrades for K-12 School Districts: A Guide to Tapping into Funding for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements.
The municipal bond–PPA model is also known as the Morris Model after Morris County, New Jersey, where the arrangement was first applied. The gist of the model is that it combines the tax monetization benefits of third-party ownership with low-cost capital in the form of public debt.
Boulder Valley School District completed a power purchase agreement to install 1.4 MW of solar photovoltaic that is expected to reduce electricity bills in 14 schools by about 10% over the 20 year life of the agreement. The case study is excerpted from Financing Energy Upgrades for K-12 School Districts: A Guide to Tapping into Funding for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements.
NREL experienced a significant increase in employees and facilities on our 327-acre main campus in Golden, Colorado over the past five years. To support this growth, researchers developed and demonstrated a new building acquisition method that successfully integrates energy efficiency requirements into the design-build requests for proposals and contracts. We piloted this energy performance based design-build process with our first new construction project in 2008. We have since replicated and evolved the process for large office buildings, a smart grid research laboratory, a supercomputer, a parking structure, and a cafeteria. Each project incorporated aggressive efficiency strategies using contractual energy use requirements in the design-build contracts, all on typical construction budgets. We have found that when energy efficiency is a core project requirement as defined at the beginning of a project, innovative design-build teams can integrate the most cost effective and high performance efficiency strategies on typical construction budgets. When the design-build contract includes measurable energy requirements and is set up to incentivize design-build teams to focus on achieving high performance in actual operations, owners can now expect their facilities to perform. As NREL completed the new construction in 2013, we have documented our best practices in training materials and a how-to guide so that other owners and owner’s representatives can replicate our successes and learn from our experiences in attaining market viable, world-class energy performance in the built environment.
Miscellaneous electrical loads (MELs) are building loads that are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the building occupants. MELs in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. On an individual building level, they account for approximately 25% of the total electrical load in a minimally code-compliant commercial building, and can exceed 50% in an ultra-high efficiency building such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Research Support Facility (RSF). Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. A complex array of technologies that measure and manage MELs has emerged in the marketplace. Some fall short of manufacturer performance claims, however. NREL has been actively engaged in developing an evaluation and selection process for MELs control, and is using this process to evaluate a range of technologies for active MELs management that will cap RSF plug loads. Using a control strategy to match plug load use to users' required job functions is a huge untapped potential for energy savings.