Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building Technologies Program (BTP) evaluated a number of control strategies that can be implemented in a controller, to improve the operational efficiency of the packaged air conditioning units. The two primary objectives of this research project are: 1) determine the magnitude of energy savings achievable by retrofitting existing packaged air conditioning units with advanced control strategies not ordinarily used for packaged units and 2) estimating what the installed cost of a replacement control with the desired features should be in various regions of the U.S. This document reports results of the study.
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Miscellaneous electrical loads (MELs) are building loads that are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the building occupants. MELs in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. On an individual building level, they account for approximately 25% of the total electrical load in a minimally code-compliant commercial building, and can exceed 50% in an ultra-high efficiency building such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Research Support Facility (RSF). Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. A complex array of technologies that measure and manage MELs has emerged in the marketplace. Some fall short of manufacturer performance claims, however. NREL has been actively engaged in developing an evaluation and selection process for MELs control, and is using this process to evaluate a range of technologies for active MELs management that will cap RSF plug loads. Using a control strategy to match plug load use to users' required job functions is a huge untapped potential for energy savings.
This series of fact sheets was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hospital Energy Alliance. These fact sheets help hospital and healthcare institution owners and operators use effective, energy-efficient technologies and practices to decrease energy consumption and its related costs and to address energy-related environmental issues. Each fact sheet covers a particular area of potential savings in healthcare facilities and includes one or more hospital case studies: Building Envelope Fact Sheet, Boilers Fact Sheet, Chillers Fact Sheet, CHP Fact Sheet, Existing Building Commissioning Fact Sheet, Energy Management Program Fact Sheet, Fast Paybacks Fact Sheet, Ground Source Heat Pumps Fact Sheet, HVAC Fact Sheet, Integrated Building Design Fact Sheet, Lighting Fact Sheet, Plug Loads Fact Sheet, Water Efficiency Fact Sheet.
This document provides a framework for standard measurement and verification (M&V) of lighting retrofit and replacement projects. It was developed to provide site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations with the essential elements of a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. It includes details on all aspects of effectively measuring light levels of existing and post-retrofit projects, conducting power measurement, and developing cost-effectiveness analysis. This framework M&V plan also enables consistent comparison among similar lighting projects, and may be used to develop M&V plans for non-lighting-technology retrofits and new installations.
The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Outdoor SSL Initiative encourages the federal sector to lead a large-scale implementation effort focused on Solid State Lighting (SSL) application. This fact sheet provides an overview of existing outdoor SSL resources developed by the U.S. Department of Energy’s SSL Program and other federal initiatives, as well as general SSL resources.
This document, developed in response to the hospitality sector’s increasing interest in using HVAC occupancy-based control (OBC) systems to reduce the energy used by unoccupied guest rooms, provides information on a technology demonstration evaluating the energy-savings potential of OBC systems produced by five manufacturers. These systems were deployed in six different hotels in three metropolitan areas and the report documents the research team’s calculation of aggregate and location-specific energy savings across four study periods, from December, 2011 to August, 2012.
This case study details Cleveland Clinic’s conversion to LED lighting in its six-story, 3,000-space 100th Street parking garage, using the Commercial Building Energy Alliances (CBEA) High-Efficiency Parking Structure Lighting specification. Cleveland Clinic used the specification to prepare its request for proposals, which was sent to six manufacturers, with five submitting bids. The case study details the criteria used to evaluate the bids and illustrates a comparison between the existing 200-watt high-pressure sodium (HPS) system and the LED replacement system.