Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in office spaces are poorly understood.
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This resource describes the California Preschool Energy Efficiency Program, including program rationale, outcomes, strategy, and implementation.
Douglas County School District faced a challenging combination of aging equipment and buildings (most over 37 years old), rising energy costs, and limited access to taxpayer funds due to the fiscally-conservative makeup of the region’s voters. The district's leadership responded creatively by beginning with an energy savings performance contract (ESPC) that utilized a tax-exempt installment purchase agreement (IPA). This case study is excerpted from Financing Energy Upgrades for K-12 School Districts: A Guide to Tapping into Funding for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements.
Boulder Valley School District completed a power purchase agreement to install 1.4 MW of solar photovoltaic that is expected to reduce electricity bills in 14 schools by about 10% over the 20 year life of the agreement. The case study is excerpted from Financing Energy Upgrades for K-12 School Districts: A Guide to Tapping into Funding for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements.
This fact sheet describes how a hybrid finance model utilizing power purchase agreements (PPA) and public debt works and assesses the model’s relative advantages and challenges as compared to self-ownership and the third-party PPA. The fact sheet also provides a quick guide to project implementation and assesses the replicability of the model in other jurisdictions across the United States.
Segmentation, identifying homogenous sub-populations within larger heterogeneous populations, has emerged as an important marketing tool over the past half-century. The technique is a response to the need to effectively communicate with an increasingly diverse population.
The municipal bond–PPA model is also known as the Morris Model after Morris County, New Jersey, where the arrangement was first applied. The gist of the model is that it combines the tax monetization benefits of third-party ownership with low-cost capital in the form of public debt.
NREL's sustainability vision is to build a laboratory of the future that is committed to sustainability, which is built on a framework of economic viability, environmental health, and public responsibility over the long term through appropriate investment decisions and operating practices.This report shows NREL’s progress in making sustainability an integral part of its corporate culture and providing a global sustainability model
The Research Support Facility was designed with energy efficiency and sustainability in mind. Many of its innovative technologies use passive and active processes to provide energy for its operations, such as electricity, heating, and cooling. The goal of this unique office building is to reach net zero energy use by engaging staff in best energy practices.
Michigan’s Oxford Area Community School District entered into an energy savings performance contract and issued limited tax general obligation bonds to fund the up-front costs of almost $3 million of energy-related improvements. Case study is excerpted from Financing Energy Upgrades for K-12 School Districts: A Guide to Tapping into Funding for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Improvements.