Berkeley Lab WINDOW is a publicly available computer program for calculating total window thermal performance indices (i.e. U-values, solar heat gain coefficients, shading coefficients, and visible transmittances). Berkeley Lab WINDOW provides a versatile heat transfer analysis method consistent with the updated rating procedure developed by the National Fenestration Rating Council (NFRC) that is consistent with the ISO 15099 standard. The program can be used to design and develop new products, to assist educators in teaching heat transfer through windows, and to help public officials in developing building energy codes.
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It is possible for K–12 new construction projects to achieve zero energy in all climate zones throughout the continental United States. This study includes:
• Energy use intensity (EUI) targets for all climate zones (Tables 23-26) to help users set goals for their zero energy school designs.
• A pathway for how to achieve these EUIs by climate zone, including values for the building envelope, fenestration, lighting systems (including electrical lights and daylighting), HVAC systems, building automation and controls, outdoor air treatment, and SWH.
• Case studies of actual K–12 school applications which demonstrate the business case and practicality of achieving zero energy schools.
This feasibility study was developed with input and guidance from a panel of industry experts. In many ways, this feasibility study is a simple interface to a complex analysis performed using EnergyPlus energy modeling. The combination of strategies contained in a single table should help facilitate increased energy efficiency in new buildings.
"Vast areas of exterior glazing have a greater impact on energy consumption than any other decision in the design of residential high-rises."
This 6-page technical design fact sheet by ComEd, about window-to-wall ratio, explains why the quantity of exterior glazing is likely to have a greater impact on energy consumption and occupant comfort than any other decision in the design of a building.
Heat loss and gain through windows has a very high impact on the thermal comfort of offices. This paper analyzes a standard low energy consumption university office that has a standard envelope.
"Effective use of daylight is essential in achieving a sustainable building design. The size of a glazed window is proportional to the level of daylight and depends on the proper integration of both window area and glass properties. Improperly designed windows could not only lead to poor illumination in building interiors, but may also cause fatigue, depression, and inefficient energy usage."
The study analyzed the variation of annual heating energy demand, annual cooling energy demand, and the annual total energy consumption in different conditions, including different orientations, patterns of utilization of air conditioning system, window-wall ratio, and types of windows. The results show that the total energy consumption increased when the window-wall ratio is also increased.
"As the connection point between the glazing and the perimeter details, curtain wall and window framing can help combat heat transfer."
Façade designs that deliberately recognize the fundamental synergistic relationships between the façade, lighting, and mechanical systems have the potential to deliver high performance over the life of the building. These "integrated" façade systems represent a key opportunity for commercial buildings to significantly reduce energy and demand, helping to move us toward our goal of net zero energy buildings by 2030.
"Bigger apertures are not necessarily better. They can cause too much heat loss or heat gain, or too much brightness and glare. Choosing just the right sizes for apertures ("right-sizing") is key. One way of measuring side light apertures is the Window-to-Wall Ratio (WWR)."