Appendices for the ENERGY STAR® Action Workbook for Congregations. Appendices were developed after reviewing results of energy audits of churches and identifying best savings opportunities. These opportunities are converted into actionable worksheets specifically geared to congregations and worship facilities.
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On May 7-9, 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy hosted the Better Buildings Summit in Washington D.C. Speakers and attendees from the commercial, industrial, multifamily, and public sectors discussed how to achieve energy savings across their organizations, and Partners were recognized by Secretary of Energy Ernest J. Moniz for their results and accomplishments in 2013. A description of the event can be found here: http://www4.eere.energy.gov/alliance/sites/default/files/uploaded-files/....
In case you missed the Summit this year, 180 presentations covered everything from emerging and high impact technologies, energy data management best practices, employee engagement and incentive programs, mobilizing capital and workforce training.
The BEDES Strategic Working Group Recommendations document is a guide to how the BEDES Dictionary can be brought to market and provide the services for which it was designed.
The U.S. Department of Energy created the Building Energy Data Exchange Specification (BEDES) to facilitate the exchange of information on building characteristics and energy use in an inexpensive and unambiguous manner.
The BEDES Dictionary 1.0 was developed by DOE to support the analysis of the performance of buildings by providing a common set of terms and definitions for building
characteristics, efficiency measures, and energy use.
While the availability of “big data” about building energy performance is increasing in response to market demands and public policies, the lack of standard data formats is a significant ongoing barrier to its full utilization. To overcome this barrier, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) developed the Building Energy Data Exchange Specification (BEDES).
BEDES is designed to enable the exchange, comparison, and combination of empirical information by providing common terms and definitions for data about commercial and residential building’s physical and operational characteristics, energy use, and efficiency measures.
This paper describes the BEDES development process, scope, structure, and plans for implementation and ongoing updates.
This project focuses on testing and demonstrating both the hardware and Cloud versions of theSMDS under field conditions. The objectives for testing and demonstrating the hardware are to 1) characterize the performance of the SMDS technology, 2) estimate the savings-to-cost ratio for demonstration units, and 3) characterize the usability of the SMDS including ease of installation and use. The SMDS provides information to the user, but to realize savings, actions must be taken by the user. The hardware demonstrations seek to discover how effective information is in influencing actions, including which faults generate the most servicing actions by the user.
These field demonstrations are of prototype SMDS units, which have not yet completed the product development process. These early demonstration projects are critical to understanding SMDS performance in the field and to gaining a better understanding of the potential performance or user interface enhancements needed in the next generation SMDS units. Conclusions related to the larger commercial building market, such as the incidence of performance degradation and specific faults and the energy savings resulting from addressing them are beyond the scope of this study and not compatible with the current stage of SMDS development.
The demonstration was performed separately for the hardware and Cloud versions of the SMDS. Both demonstrations involved selecting buildings, installing the required hardware (although it requires less hardware, the Cloud version requires sensors and cell modems), collecting and processing data, and viewing and tabulating results. Details of the procedures are presented later in this report.
In 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technology Office (DOE’s BTO), with help from the Better Buildings Alliance (BBA) members, developed a specification (RTU Challenge) for high performance rooftop air-conditioning units (RTUs) with capacity ranges between 10 and 20 tons (DOE 2013). Daikin’s Rebel RTU was recognized by DOE in May 2012 as first to meet the RTU Challenge specifications. This report documents the testing of a Rebel unit and a standard reference unit in the field and compares the seasonal efficiency of the two units.
The goal of the RTU Challenge demonstration was to estimate the seasonal performance of the RTU Challenge unit and the annual savings that could be achieved by installing the challenge unit instead of an alternate standard unit. The demonstration took place at two grocery stores located in New Smyrna Beach and Port Orange, Florida. The Rebel unit was installed as a replacement of an existing unit in July 2013 at the New Smyrna Beach store. The reference unit was an existing rooftop unit in the Port Orange store that is about 6 years old. The reference unit had two compressors for staged cooling and a constant-speed supply fan. Both units had the same rated cooling capacity of 7.5 tons and served each store’s office spaces with similar footprints.
A set of sensors were used to measure the dry-bulb temperature and the relative humidity for the outdoor-air, the return-air, the mixed-air, and the supply-air. RTU total power consumption was also measured using a power transducer. These sensor measurements, together with a number of control signals were monitored at 1-minute intervals from August 2013 to September 2014.
The average daily energy efficiency ratio (EER) was computed for each unit using the monitored data. The ratio of the average EER for the two units varied between 0.9 and 2.4. The Rebel unit had a higher daily EER than the reference unit for almost all days. The EER ratio increased as the daily average outdoor-air temperature decreased, as expected. This means that RTUs with variable-speed compressors and variable-speed fans, like Rebel, had better part-load efficiencies than units using constant speed supply fans and ON/OFF controls for compressors. The average of the daily EER ratio for all days was approximately 1.38, which means that on average, the daily EER of the Rebel unit was 38% higher than that of the reference unit.
In addition to daily EER, the seasonal cooling efficiency was also calculated over the entire monitoring period. Over the 12-month period, the reference unit and the Rebel unit had seasonal EERs of 8.3 and 10.9, respectively. The Rebel unit’s seasonal EER was about 31% higher than the reference unit. This result was slightly lower than the findings from our previous simulation work, which estimated that in hot and humid climates, Rebel would consume about 40% less electricity than a RTU with a constant-speed supply fan and a single-stage mechanical cooling. Possible reasons for this difference included: 1) the load that the two units in the field served were different, while the two units in the simulation served the same load; and 2) the reference unit had higher operating efficiency than the number used in the simulation runs.
The annual energy savings from the rooftop unit replacement with Rebel was about 16,000 kWh, which translated to roughly 3.8 years in simple payback.
It was a challenge to find two units running in two different spaces that had served similar cooling loads. Although two grocery stores with similar layouts were selected, the monitored data showed that they had noticeably different load profiles. Therefore, absolute energy savings between the two units could not be calculated. If the absolute savings measurement were desirable, then the existing RTU will have to be monitored for 1 year, followed by a year of monitoring of the Rebel unit after it replaces the existing RTU.
Other issues related to the installation of the Rebel unit included:
-The Rebel unit came with a different base footprint from the existing Lennox unit. Although a curb adapter was provided, it left the unit suspended over the front side of the base, and was ultimately supported by blocks.
-Although the new Rebel unit was considerably heavier than the unit it replaced, no roof reinforcement was needed.
The store that had the Rebel unit reported no comfort issues either positive or negative. The Rebel unit had a Micro Tech III controller, which was not compatible with the existing Emerson E2 BX controller, or the Emerson building automation system (BAS). Emerson had an application for the Micro Tech II controller but not for Micro Tech III. Therefore, the store had to install an output board with a set of dry contacts to control the RTU indoor fan. They also had to add an interface to monitor the indoor fan “On/Off” status and the supply/return temperatures, but they could not control any cooling/heating/speed control functions. All operations were controlled directly by the Micro Tech III controller in the unit with input from the zone temperature sensor.
The start-up and commissioning of the Rebel was challenging because the local Daikin distributor who installed the unit had very little experience in installing these new units. In addition, the controller had many features with a large instruction/operation manual, which made it difficult to properly configure. It took the distributor a couple of trips to configure the unit correctly, but after it was configured, the unit, as well as its metering and monitoring system worked as expected. Over the last 12-month period, maintenance requirements for this unit were similar to the other units.
The Smart Monitoring and Diagnostic System (SMDS) is a low-cost technology that helps building owners and managers keep rooftop air conditioner and heat pump units (RTUs) operating properly at peak efficiency. The SMDS technology has the potential to significantly benefit small commercial buildings, which predominately use RTUs for space conditioning. Through the Better Buildings Alliance, a field demonstration was conducted at four sites using two SMDS prototypes. This case study provides a summary of the field demonstration results.
The full report is available at: https://buildingdata.energy.gov/cbrd/resource/1927
Paul Torcellini, principal engineer with the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory, discusses how we can achieve zero-energy buildings by integrating the cost of energy efficiency into design decisions. This is the first presentation captured from Ecobuilding Review’s 2014 Vision 2020 Sustainability Summit.
This case study details the very successful Walgreens proactive RTU replacement program that has resulted in 50% efficiency improvements. The streamlined process allows Walgreens to reduce installed cooling capacity, increase RTU efficiency, provide improved service, and reduce overall costs compared to emergency replacements.
JCPenney saved over 47 million kWh and $5 million with variable frequency drive retrofits of rooftop units across 131 stores. The case study describes the decision process and results of this successful program.