This report characterizes the commercial new construction market in order to better understand the needs and operation of the market, to more effectively identify needed technologies, and to identify effective strategies to diffuse the technologies being developed by the U.S. Department of Energy.
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Miscellaneous electrical loads (MELs) are building loads that are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the building occupants. MELs in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. On an individual building level, they account for approximately 25% of the total electrical load in a minimally code-compliant commercial building, and can exceed 50% in an ultra-high efficiency building such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Research Support Facility (RSF). Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. A complex array of technologies that measure and manage MELs has emerged in the marketplace. Some fall short of manufacturer performance claims, however. NREL has been actively engaged in developing an evaluation and selection process for MELs control, and is using this process to evaluate a range of technologies for active MELs management that will cap RSF plug loads. Using a control strategy to match plug load use to users' required job functions is a huge untapped potential for energy savings.
The Walmart Supercenter in Leavenworth, Kansas, offered a test case to determine whether an LED system could meet the CBEA specification and be competitive with conventional systems when maintenance and energy costs were factored in. The LED system was compared to two systems: a 1,000-watt (W) pulse-start metal halide (PMH) and a 400-W PMH. This case study provides initial results and results after two years.
This document provides a framework for standard measurement and verification (M&V) of lighting retrofit and replacement projects. It was developed to provide site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations with the essential elements of a robust M&V plan for lighting projects. It includes details on all aspects of effectively measuring light levels of existing and post-retrofit projects, conducting power measurement, and developing cost-effectiveness analysis. This framework M&V plan also enables consistent comparison among similar lighting projects, and may be used to develop M&V plans for non-lighting-technology retrofits and new installations.
This document was developed as part of the LED Application Series. Light-emitting diode (LED) technology is rapidly becoming competitive with high-intensity discharge light sources for outdoor area lighting. This document reviews the major design and specification concerns for outdoor area lighting, and discusses the potential for LED luminaires to save energy while providing high-quality lighting in outdoor areas.
This document provides information on the application of the CBEA site lighting performance specification at some U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) GATEWAY demonstration projects. Because the issues and experiences from the applications vary, this document’s summarization and comparison of the results helps to show the benefits and caveats of an LED application. It also offers guidance for planning an LED application.
The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Outdoor SSL Initiative encourages the federal sector to lead a large-scale implementation effort focused on Solid State Lighting (SSL) application. This fact sheet provides an overview of existing outdoor SSL resources developed by the U.S. Department of Energy’s SSL Program and other federal initiatives, as well as general SSL resources.
This report considers the major potential for lighting-related energy savings for all major exterior areas, including parking lots, streets and roadways, and building-mounted lighting. Discussion covers safety and security challenges that could hinder maximum energy savings. The report discusses the need for good design features—including appropriate lighting levels—that support safety and security elements, such as visual identification capability and effective lighting for security cameras. Lighting issues related to litigation concerns also are part of this reports.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed this Building Upgrade Manual to assist organizations in planning and implementing profitable upgrades. This manual outlines a process for developing a comprehensive energy-management strategy and an integrated approach to upgrading existing buildings. It also provides information on proven energy-efficient technologies that can produce energy savings of 35 percent or more. Chapter six of this publication is devoted to issues related to lighting.
The Commercial Building Energy Alliance (CBEA) Lighting and Electrical Project Team developed a performance specification to help building owners and operators maximize the benefits of converting to solid-state lighting (SSL) technology from traditional high-intensity discharge technology. This specification provides information about both the luminaire and how the site should be lighted. It can be customized as building owners work with lighting designers, engineers, or SSL manufacturers to provide lighting solutions for different locations.