7:00 a.m. - 9:00 p.m.
- Grocery Store or Food Market
- Restaurant or Cafeteria
Project Full Name
Whole Foods Market
Whole Foods Market partnered with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop and implement solutions to reduce annual energy consumption in new stores by at least 50% versus requirements set by ASHRAE/ANSI/IESNA Standard 90.1-2004 as part of DOE’s Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) provided technical expertise
The new Whole Foods Market store in Raleigh, North Carolina, is a single-story 40,000 ft2 standalone store. Although each WFM is unique, this store is representative of other WFM stores, and the energy efficiency measures used here can be deployed to these stores and to other buildings in the U.S. food sales subsector. The construction on this project is complete, and NREL researchers and Whole Foods Market are engaged in monitoring and verifying the performance of the store.
- Retail food
8710 Six Forks Road, Raleigh, NC
Building Hours of Operation
7:00 a.m. - 9:00 p.m.
GENERAL FLOOR AREATotal Gross Floor Area 40,000 ft²
BUILDINGBuilding unit or complex: Described project is part of a building
DATE OF OCCUPANCY/COMPLETION March 2011
ARCHITECTURAL MEASURE USED TO MEET A HIGH-LEVEL OF ENERGY PERFORMANCE
The distribution of skylights was optimized along with associated area lamp selection for daylight controllability. Additionally, the total glazing area was significantly reduced by design for energy efficiency.
Indoor Environment Quality
Indoor Environment Issues
Doors on refrigeration cases help make aisles more comfortable
Install side panels on all the exhaust hoods to achieve a lower exhaust flow rate and capture all the exhaust fumes.
Removing heat, moisture and air fumes requires large amounts of air flow - make-up air unit can deliver a large fraction of the required flow at the exhaust hoods
Reduction of glare within the store
Use skylights and/or clerestories for daylighting
Design ventilation system to exchange both heat and humidity between incoming and outgoing air
Ensure that kitchen range hoods exhaust to the outdoors
Provide local exhaust ventilation for rooms with high-emitting sources
Use special equipment for ventilating locations with high heat loads
Keep relative humidity below 60%
Use active dehumidification
General Modelling Information
- Sensor Placement + Optimization Tool (SPOT)
Discuss goals that were met and goals that were not achieved, and the reasons for these outcomes
Carefully commission energy submeters
- Installation, calibration, and documentation of meters proved difficult and challenged measuring, understanding, and optimizing energy by end use.
Use performance-based procurement
- RFPs to manufacturers specified loads and conditions, streamlining identifying and procuring the most efficient HVAC and refrigeration systems.
Involve all players early in the process
- This strategy meant empowered the commissioning agent with detailed building knowledge to catch problems during store commissioning.
Use equipment only as needed
- Automated controls (for kitchen hoods, refrigerated display cases, lighting, etc.) save significant energy.
Place doors on medium-temperature refrigerated cases
- The doors were embraced by customers and saved energy, particularly natural gas for heating.
Estimated payback time of any investment in measures needed to reach zero net energy
Estimated payback time for this project is less than 5 years.
This building is predicted to use 41% less energy than a similar building that meets the minimum requirements set by ASHRAE 90.1-2004.
A significant challenge to reaching 50% savings was the large proportion of energy use going to loads such as cooking and refrigeration, which were outside the purview of ASHRAE 90.1-2004. There has historically been less focus on saving energy in those end uses compared to code-regulated items such as envelope, lighting, and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. The CBP team formulated a set of baseline refrigeration system specifications analogous to ASHRAE 90.1-2004 and used them to generate an energy model to benchmark performance against. Typical equipment used in new Whole Foods Market stores was used to craft the equipment baseline.
Achieve a whole-wall R-value of 15 or greater
Use windows with a whole-unit U-factor less than 0.32 (greater than R-3.0)
Achieve a whole-roof R-value of 25 or greater
Shade south windows with exterior louvers, awnings, or trellises
Use skylights with a low Solar Heat Gain Coefficient
Reduce internal sources of humidity
Use demand-controlled ventilation
Use skylights for daylighting
Design for no more than 1.0 watts/square foot
Use high-efficacy T8 fluorescent lamps
Provide covers for open refrigerated cases, so they can be covered at night
Use waste heat from mechanical systems to heat water